House Education & the Workforce Committee
John Boehner, Chairman
2181 Rayburn HOB · (202) 225-4527
No Child Left Behind Act (H.R. 1):
the Achievement Gap in America’s Public Schools
President Bush and Republicans are working to close the
achievement gap between disadvantaged students and their peers.
For 35 years, Washington
spent billions on education without insisting on results for our children.
President Bush and Congress have brought that era to an end.
December 13, 2001, by an overwhelming bipartisan vote of 381-41, the House
approved President George W. Bush’s education reform legislation, the No
Child Left Behind Act (H.R. 1). The
measure is a comprehensive overhaul of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESEA) built on principles of accountability for results;
local control and flexibility; expanded parental choice; and funding for
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT (H.R. 1)
parents report cards on school performance.
more dollars to the classroom, with fewer strings attached.
federal K-12 education programs, requiring accountability for results
through annual testing to ensure all children are learning.
extra help for schools identified as underachieving.
teachers, principals and school board members from frivolous lawsuits.
new options to parents with children in dangerous or chronically
underachieving public schools.
federal K-12 education programs from 55 to 45.
bilingual education programs to focus on helping LEP children learn
funding for reading programs proven to work.
federal teacher quality aid by 35 percent over last Clinton budget.
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND MAKES A DIFFERENCE
parents, voters, and taxpayers with data about public schools –
allowing “sunshine” into the public education system and increasing
accountability for results.
immediate new options for parents of students in thousands of
underachieving and/or dangerous public schools across America.
the number of federal K-12 education programs from 55 to 45 and requires
that 95 percent of all federal funds reach the local level.
local control and gives all 50 states and every local school district
new freedom and flexibility in the use of federal education dollars.
accountability for results through annual testing of students in
federally-funded public schools in reading and math in grades 3-8.
on effective, proven methods of reading instruction backed by scientific
for states to have a highly-qualified teacher in every public classroom
special education by giving new tools to parents of children with
special needs, along with new resources to help schools recruit
qualified special education teachers and improve early reading
ACCOUNTABILITY FOR RESULTS
that accept federal funds must demonstrate that they are making
“adequate yearly progress” – in other words, that they’re
meeting state standards each this year for student achievement.
This is accomplished through annual testing of public school
students in reading and math in grades 3-8.
identified as underachieving immediately qualify for extra help.
Parents with children attending these schools, including children
with special needs, immediately qualify for new options.
states to design and implement their annual tests.
prohibits federally sponsored national testing or federally controlled
home schools, home school students, private schools, and private school
students from all testing requirements.
that test data be disaggregated and reported by race, income, and other
criteria to demonstrate not just that overall student achievement is
improving, but also that achievement gaps are closing between
disadvantaged students and other students.
a “safe harbor” for schools that can demonstrate they are making
significant progress while technically falling short of that students in
a particular subgroup are making significant progress toward proficiency
but have not technically met AYP. This provision is intended to help
prevent over-identification of failing schools.
a small sample of students in each state to participate in the
fourth and eighth grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
in reading and math every other year as a means of verifying the results
of the statewide assessments all students take.
HELP FOR UNDERACHIEVING SCHOOLS
schools are not “punished”; they qualify immediately for extra help,
including emergency funding and technical assistance.
schools immediately qualify to receive extra help, including additional
federal funding for school improvement, as well as technical assistance
in developing a plan to turn the school around.
that continue to underachieve – even after years extra help – are
required to change dramatically.
After four years, schools that do not improve after a period of
intensive assistance and extra help will be required to implement
significant corrective actions to improve the school, such as replacing
certain staff. After five
years, such schools can be transformed dramatically through measures
such as reconstitution, State takeover, the hiring of a private
management contractor, conversion to a charter school, or significant
OPTIONS FOR CHILDREN IN UNDERACHIEVING SCHOOLS
with children in underachieving schools are given the right to obtain
private tutoring and other supplemental services for their children
through their child’s share of federal Title I funds.
with children in underachieving schools are given the right to transfer
their child to a better or safer public school, with transportation
costs paid for.
pressure on struggling schools, providing some relief until improvements
can be made.
TEACHER QUALITY & SUPPORTING TEACHERS
funding for teacher programs is increased 38 percent (by $787 million
– to $2.85 billion) this year to help states train, recruit, and
retain quality teachers.
for states to have a highly qualified teacher in every public classroom
by the end of the 2005-2006 school year.
teachers and school officials, including school board members, from
national teacher testing and certification.
CONTROL & FLEXIBILITY
local control of schools by providing new freedom and decision-making
authority to every local school district in America.
“Dollars to the Classroom” principles to federal formula grant
programs, so that 95 percent of federal education funds are spent at the
local communities with more flexibility and more control over how
federal education funds are used.
every local school district in the country the freedom to use up to half
of its non-Title I federal education funds as it sees fit, instead of
following strict Washington rules.
state and local flexibility “demonstration projects” to be
established across the nation to demonstrate the effectiveness of state
and local control in improving student achievement. Seven states across the nation will
be granted additional flexibility in the use of federal funds, receiving
a waiver from federal education requirements relating to a variety of
federal education programs.
BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
changes the focus of bilingual education programs from programs teaching
limited English proficient (LEP) children primarily in their native
languages to programs focused on helping LEP children learn English.
the former Bilingual Education and Immigrant Education programs into a
single flexible program with a totally new focus on helping limited
English proficient (LEP) students learn English.
accountability for results in teaching LEP children English.
Requires that LEP students be tested for reading and language
arts in English after they have attended school in the United States for
three consecutive years.
that all teachers in a language instruction class for LEP
children be fluent in English, including written and oral communication
skills, and any other language used by the program.
that parents be notified when a limited English proficient child is in
need of English language instruction.
new resources and a focus on results to help states ensure all children
are skilled readers by the end of third grade.
federal funding for states that implement scientifically based reading
instruction programs that are proven to work.
a companion initiative for early reading instruction (Early Reading
First) to enhance reading readiness for children in high poverty areas,
and where there are high numbers of students who are not reading at
HOME SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS
an exemption from all federal testing requirements for home schools and
an exemption from all federal testing requirements for any private
school or private school student that does not receive federal
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) funds or services.
federal control over private, religious, and home schools, while
clarifying that such schools are not barred from participating
voluntarily in ESEA programs or services.
states receiving federal ESEA funds to have a procedure in place to
transfer student disciplinary records (such as records of a suspension
or expulsion) from local school districts to private or public schools
when a student transfers
to a new school.
hundreds of millions in federal “seed money” to help establish
nearly 700 new charter schools and provide additional assistance for
more than 1,000 existing ones.
federal funding for schools that unlawfully restrict constitutionally
protected student prayer.
greater fairness for rural school districts by giving local school
officials greater say in how federal funds are used.
community-based organizations – including religious organizations
and other public entities and private organizations – that provide
safety and drug abuse prevention programs to apply for federal funds
under the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Act.
all references to Goals 2000, outcome-based education, School-to-Work,
Workforce Investment Act, and “higher order thinking skills” from
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
specific prohibitions on the U.S. Department of Education as safeguards
against any form of federal control over state or local curriculum.
FUNDING – TIED TO REFORM
Bush and Republicans in Congress worked together during the 107th
Congress to provide the resources for education reform while funding a
nation at war. As a result of No Child Left Behind, public schools in the
U.S. this year are benefiting from the largest amount of federal funding
ever provided for elementary and secondary education. Never in the history of the United States has the federal
government invested so much in our nation’s schools. The No Child Left Behind reforms are tied to the largest
single-year increase in history for federal elementary and secondary
education funding – a 27 percent increase ($4.8 billion).
I Aid for Disadvantaged Schools & Students –
Federal aid to disadvantaged students and schools is being increased
dramatically as a result of President Bush’s reforms, and the
President’s FY2003 Budget continues that commitment.
The President’s FY2003 Budget provides a $1 billion
increase in Title I grants next year – on top of the $1.6 billion
increase provided this year – focusing resources on the
highest-poverty school districts. Under
the first two years of President Bush’s presidency, we will have seen
greater increases in Title I funding than in the previous seven years
combined under President Clinton.
To see a breakdown of Title I funding increases by state this
year as a result of No Child Left Behind, go to http://edworkforce.house.gov/issues/107th/education/nclb/statebystate.pdf
As a result of the No Child Left Behind, hundreds of millions of
additional federal dollars are flowing to states and school districts to
improve reading instruction using proven methods based on scientific
research. Federal funding
for reading this year has been more than tripled since the last budget
signed by President Clinton, from $300 million in FY2001 to $900 million
this year. President Bush's
FY2003 Budget, and the budget resolution approved by the House, provides
this funding again next year -- along with another $100 million
increase, bringing next year's total to more than $1 billion for states
and school districts for proven reading instruction.
A list of estimated state grants and next year's funding under
President Bush's request for Reading First is available at www.ed.gov/PressReleases/01-2002/estimates.html.
– The No Child Left Behind Act is not an unfunded mandate.
To help states cover the costs of the reform law’s annual
testing requirement, more than $385 million is being provided in 2002
for states to use in designing their accountability systems.
This funding is maintained in the President’s FY2003 Budget.
– As a result of
President Bush’s reforms, federal funding for teacher quality programs
is being increased 38 percent (by $787 million – to $2.85 billion)
this year to help states train, recruit, and retain quality teachers.
This historic level of support is maintained in the President’s
FY2003 Budget and the budget resolution passed this spring by House
and Transition to Teaching –
No Child Left Behind helps eligible members of the armed forces and
mid-career professionals obtain certification as elementary and
secondary school teachers as well as vocational teachers through the
“Troops to Teachers” and “Transition to Teaching” programs.
and Immigrant Education –
The No Child Left Behind Act dramatically transforms the federal
bilingual education and immigrant education programs, changing them from
programs focused on teaching limited English proficient children in
their native languages to a single new program focused on ensuring such
children learn English.